Ten FAQs on packaging.
- What packaging will I need for my products?
- How do I know whether to use basic packaging or invest in packaging design?
- Can I make recyclable packaging into a selling point?
- Where can I source packaging materials?
- How can I limit packaging costs if I only need a few units?
- Can I re-use packaging?
- Where can I get help with package labelling and safety regulations?
- How can I stop breakages during transit?
- How can I speed up the packing process?
- Can I pass the cost of packaging on to my customers?
1. What packaging will I need for my products?
Start by ensuring your packaging is functional and that it keeps the contents secure and protected. Take into account the different situations the packaging may need to function in: applying the packaging to the product; storing it on your premises; delivery or postage; storage and display at a retailer or wholesaler; delivery or collection by a customer; opening and possibly resealing by the end user.
Secondly, ensure that the packaging identifies its contents and complies with legal requirements with regard to labelling. Packaging may also include instructions on how to handle the packaging and use the product.
Thirdly, take into account packaging's role in marketing. Ensure that the quality of the packaging is consistent with your brand. If the product will be displayed in a shop, design the packaging to help sell the product.
Depending on your product, you may need anything from bubble wrap to printed boxes. The main categories of packaging are likely to be:
- Corrugated boxes to protect goods in transit. Plain or printed with your name, and often bearing handling information, such as "This way up".
- Solid board cartons in full colour, bearing your corporate imagery and with instructions, country of origin details and, possibly, plastic window insets. These bespoke cartons can be expensive, especially if they need customisation.
- Bottles, cans and containers of all sizes, including vacuum-formed blister packs.
- Bubble wrap, shrink wrap, polystyrene beads for loose fill, polystyrene foam (moulded or hot wire cut to hold and protect delicate products), strapping systems, adhesive tape (overprinted, if necessary), self-seal card, Jiffy bags, postal tubes, poly bags, anti-static wraps and so on.
- Labels for identification or to carry care instructions, ingredient lists or fibre content details.
- Export crates.
Closely allied to this sector is point of sale material, which may include price stickers, leaflet dispensers and counter display packs.
2. How do I know whether to use basic packaging or invest in packaging design?
This depends on your product, how you sell it, and its market positioning.
If you sell animal feed or cement, for example, then your packaging can be basic - as long as it identifies the product. If you sell supermarket products, you will want the package to look good and sell itself from the shelf. If you are selling a premium product such as fragrance or chocolates, then the quality of the packaging design is vital in conveying a promise to the buyer. Premium lifestyle products tend to make greater profits, so any investment you make in packaging will pay off.
3. Can I make recyclable packaging into a selling point?
Without a doubt, yes. This could work on at least three levels. Firstly, if you want to demonstrate that your product is environmentally-friendly. Secondly, if you want to convey that your product is plain, simple and honest - without additives and frills. Lastly, if you wish to highlight its value for money. However, each approach may require a different emphasis to the design.
A few companies, such as Body Shop, have managed to do this convincingly. But they are the exceptions. There is consumer resistance to overpackaging, but most selling environments still call for attractive packs. You may be able to make economy a virtue - but that will depend on your marketing profile and the positioning of your product.
4. Where can I source packaging materials?
Start with your nearest general packaging wholesaler who will be able to supply most standard lines in convenient quantities. For less routine items, try the ads in specialist trade journals like Packaging News. Most trade journals carry ads for specialist packaging products that support their industries, so if you are in, say, the food business, try The Grocer. Solutions to many kinds of packaging problem can be bought off the shelf at websites such as Allpack. For point-of-sale items and display packs, try the Point of Sale Centre.
5. How can I limit packaging costs if I only need a few units?
Part of the set-up costs for the production of non-standard boxes is a charge for making a special cutter, so it helps to keep the bill down if you pick a design that the box firm already has. Try to piggyback by latching on to a run that a carton maker is already planning for a big customer and adding your requirement onto the end. One answer to expensive colour printing bills is to buy standard boxes from stock and get a stick-on label printed with all the product pictures, diagrams and information you need.
You will find it easier to order small quantities if you use stock (rather than tailor-made) packaging. You can also try overseas suppliers who might be more inclined to meet your needs. Alternatively, try to get your supplier to take phased payments - it does not solve the problem, but it will help ease the impact.
6. Can I re-use packaging materials?
There are firms that sell recycled boxes (try Sadlers or Collins Cartons). If you only need modest quantities, make friends with your local electrical goods retailer, who will always have masses of boxes and sheet foam to get rid of.
Shredded paper and wood shavings can be used as a packing material to protect breakable items.
If you use contract packers for long or awkward runs, you will save money if you are able to plan ahead. Even large volumes can be handled inexpensively if you do not have strict deadlines and can afford to wait for your job to be slotted in at a time to suit the packer.
7. Where can I get help on package labelling and safety regulations?
Skilled interpretation is needed, as getting the wrong information on a label can be dangerous, wasteful and illegal. Ask your local Trading Standards officer, who will be able to offer free help and informed advice. Trade associations can often give advice in more specialist areas (for example, matters concerning fire regulations for soft furnishings are handled by the Association of Master Upholsterers). Other authoritative sources of information include Smithers Pira and the British Standards Institution.
8. How can I stop breakages in transit?
Ask for advice from your carrier, who will be able to explain to you just how many hands your package may pass through. Spend an hour at a parcel depot, getting a realistic idea of the sort of treatment your packaging needs to be able to stand up to. Then plan or adapt your packaging accordingly. Dealing with breakages and returns is an expensive business, and it is cheaper to invest in getting your packaging right first time. Here are some guidelines:
- Small items will be thrown (do not believe otherwise), so either make sure the pack is too big for such handling or envelope the product in bubble wrap.
- Clearly mark packages containing glass or other fragile materials.
- Pack around your products with poly beads, wood wool, shavings or crumpled newspaper, ideal for scrunch filling cavities in standard boxes.
- Use corner pads and edge protectors and secure products on a foam or wooden base.
- Shrink-wrap products such as jams or delicate components on open trays, so that everyone can see they are fragile.
- Do not forget to include a damage return packing slip, pointing out that claims will not be entertained unless you are notified within 48 hours.
9. How can I speed up the packing process?
Either subcontract it to professionals or become more professional yourself. Skilled use of appropriate equipment is nine tenths of the battle. Be organised; set up your packaging as an efficient, mass production process. Invest in more expensive equipment (eg heavy-duty staplers, glue guns, a shrink wrapping machine) if it will speed up the process. If necessary, change the packaging you use.
10. Can I pass the cost of packaging on to my customers?
Your customers are already paying indirectly for your raw materials, your staff payroll, your rent, your electricity and your delivery costs. Packaging expenses are merely another running-cost component that needs to be considered before setting your selling price. Well-designed packaging is unlikely to cost more than the packaging used by your competitors - unless it is notably better, in which case you can congratulate yourself for creating a valuable point of difference.